L ergonomie des menus et des boîtes de dialogues a été entièrement revue pour être plus facile à utiliser. StatBox s intègre désormais totalement dans Excel sous la forme d un menu ou ruban Excel ou supérieur qui s ajoute à la suite des menus d Excel. StatBox pilote entièrement Excel comme application hôte. Cette nouvelle architecture rend StatBox plus stable et plus rapide. Le système de protection a été profondément modifié de sorte qu il n est plus nécessaire d utiliser une clé de protection physique. Des fonctionnalités plus nombreuses Voici quelques-unes des nouvelles fonctions disponibles : En agriculture : calcul vectoriel, choix de l orientation des tests pour la plupart des tests statistiques.
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La technique utilisée implique un croisement intergénérique avec le maïs Zea mays L. Le meilleur taux a été obtenu avec une variété de maïs de type popcorn. The technique used involved an inter-generic cross with maize Zea mays L. The spelt breeding line had no significant effect on embryo production, but the maize variety did, and an interaction between spelt breeding line and maize variety was found.
The best rate was obtained with a maize variety of the popcorn type. The rate of caryopsis formation was low Since then, haplodiploidization has become an important tool in plant breeding and is increasingly used in pure-line programs. So far as we know, no work has been done on spelt haploidiploidization. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of the maize genotype on the hybridization with spelt; and of growth substance treatment on the production of caryopses C.
The substrate was half blonde and half brown peat. When spelt stigma was feathery and fluffy Campbell et al. The 2,4-D acts as a growth substance and GA3 plays a role in the growth of the caryopsis C. Twenty-four hours after pollination, spike was pulverised. The Es were controlled to be haploids H with the aspect of the C: a C from an interspecific crossing has an aqueous endosperm while a C from self-pollination has a milky endosperm.
Ten non-emasculated spikes per breeding line were pollinated with each maize variety. Only the 2,4-D solution was pulverised. Number of Cs, Es and Ps was collected. The results were reported on a per-PF or per-E basis. An analysis of variance ANOVA evaluated the impact of the treatments, based on the general linear model, using the software Statbox 7.
For the six breeding lines and the three maize varieties, The rates of embryo formation reported in literature were: In the literature, on the one hand, a considerable varietal difference in efficiency among wheat varieties has been observed in embryo production Bitsch et al. While on the other hand, several authors have reported that wheat genotypes do not affect embryo production Suenaga et al. Bitsch et al. In the present study, the number of P obtained from the number of Es placed in culture was The literature reports rates of Lefebvre et al.
The highest rate for MPC was Even the best rate obtained in the present study was not as good as those obtained by Laurie, but it was close to others from literature. The number of Cs obtained is attributed to the application of growth substances. The results obtained from other studies Laurie et al. Emasculation probably enabled the glumes to be opened so that hormonal treatments would have better access to the stigma and better penetration.
The ANOVA showed that neither the spelt breeding line nor the nature of growth substance influenced the rate of production of Es. When spikes were emasculated days prior to anthesis, Emasculation has been done as early as 4 Sarrafi et al.
According to Laurie however, intact glumes result in higher embryo production than when glumes are cut back for emasculation, but Suenaga et al. The results obtained in the present study contradict those reported in the literature but emasculation in the case of spelt seemed promising. The rate of P regeneration was weak overall except for one variety of maize; this suggests that a better rate could be obtained and integrated into a breeding program.
Deeper investigations and new procedures need to be further experimented in order to propose new protocols for spelt haplodiploidization to the scientific community.
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